全球暖化可能导致地震频发

(2009-05-04 08:24:28)
标签: 全球暖化 地震

  热浪一阵比一阵热,飓风一场比一场猛,海平面越来越高,这些都是地球暖化对人类发出的警告。但科学家指出,地震频发也与地球变暖有关。

  据加拿大新闻社报道,加入全球暖化争论的最新科学学科是地质学。一些地质学家解释说,气候暖化直接导致冰帽融化,这将释放出在地壳中被抑制的压力,引发极端的地质事故,其中包括地震、海啸及火山喷发。一立方米冰的重量接近一吨,而一些冰层的厚度会超过1000米。当这些重量因融化而除去后,地壳就会弹回到原来的形状。

  加拿大阿尔伯塔大学地质学家帕特里克·吴用一个生动的例子解释了这种效果:他用拇指压着足球,当拇指抬起,对球的表面压力除去之后,足球会恢复原来的形状。地球两极这些厚冰层像拇指按压地球一样,给地球带来大量的压力,压制住地震的发生,但在它们融化之后,便会引发地震。当地震发生在海洋下,就会形成海啸。当然,对地球来说,由于地壳非常坚硬,这个恢复原状的过程相当缓慢。比如,目前,加拿大东部偶然发生的地震,其实与一万多年前的最后一次冰河期的反弹有关。南极洲及格陵兰积雪的融化也会有相同的影响,但过程将因温室效应而加速。

  帕特里克·吴还表示,冰层融化后,重新液化的水会引发海平面上升,增加海底所承受的重量,而这也可能对地层深处的板块造成影响。

  地壳可能比很多人想象得更敏感,之前已有很多事例证明了这一点,比如修建大坝后,大坝拦截而成的水库水量增加,引发地震。北卡罗来纳州立大学的火山专家阿兰·格拉比尼尔表示,当他发现加州海岸的气候变化与火山活动之间有关时,一开始还有些怀疑。可是,他到图书馆查阅资料进行研究后发现,在世界许多地方,特别是地中海地区,气候变化与火山活动的这种联系尤其明显。他说:“冰层融化,地壳的负载减轻,在压力的作用下,地壳下面的岩浆就更容易喷出来,这就是火山。”

  英国地质学家比尔·马奎尔在《新科学家》杂志上发表的论文也指出:“全世界越来越多的证据显示,全球气候变化已经影响着地震、火山喷发和灾难性海底滑坡发生的频率。这种现象已经在地球历史上发生过多次,而且证据显示,它正再度发生。”

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